APA Reference Style Guide
Developed and maintained by Professor Michael "Mike" Strahan. Updated 12/22/2014
Examples reflect the 6th edition, 2nd printing (© 2010) of the Publication Manual; APA Style Guide to Electronic References, 6th ed. (© 2012); and APA Style Blog ( http://blog.apastyle.org/ ).
Please always refresh page (F5) to reflect changes since your last visit.
Note: Enforcement of APA style is up to course instructor or publication editor.
Other APA Tools:
- APA Tips Checklist
- APA Basic in-text Citation Styles
- Format APA Content in Presentation Slides
- Captioning Tables and Figures
- APA in-text citations (Diana Hacker & Barbara Fister)
NOTE: Journal titles which begin with BMC are online-only and like other online-only journals, they do not use issue numbers, and do not have page numbers.
- For one article:
How to find assigned DOI
1. Check the first page of article (usually in smaller print near journal logo, copyright, or near author email address).
2. If not on article, check database record/abstract (sometimes labeled as DOI). CINAHL began adding DOI's in 2009.
3. If DOI does not appear on either article or in database, search the Cross/Ref DOI Lookup using article author/title
For list of references:
Create an account at Cross/Ref.
Next, enter your e-mail address, then copy & paste entire list into Simple Text Query box (takes a few minutes).
An individual DOI may be verified/searched by entering number here:
Cross/Ref DOI Resolver
Articles: New APA/CrossRef change in DOI
Articles, assigned DOI (either DOI format is acceptable)Journal Article (continuous pagination throughout volume)
Wilens, T. E., & Biederman, J. (2006). Alcohol, drugs, and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: A model for the study of addictions in youth. Journal of Psychopharmacology, 20, 580-588.
New DOI format is: http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0269881105058776
Journal Article (continuous pagination throughout volume), more than seven authors
Caselli, D., Carraro, F., Castagnola, E., Ziino, O., Frenos, S., Milano, G. M., . . . Aric, M. (2010). Morbidity of pandemic H1N1 influenza in children with cancer. Pediatric Blood & Cancer, 55, 226-228.
New DOI format is: http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pbc.22619
Journal Article (paginated by issue)
Klimoski, R., & Palmer, S. (1993). The ADA and the hiring process in organizations. Consulting Psychology Journal: Practice and Research, 45(2), 10-36.
New DOI format is: http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/1061-4087.45.2.10
Cochrane Database Report retrieved from Cochrane Library
Shaw, K., O'Rourke, P., Del Mar, C., & Kenardy, J. (2005). Psychological interventions for overweight or obesity. The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, (2).
New DOI format is: http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD003818.pub2
Advance online article (published online before print; may or may not include pagination; indicate initial page number or range if available).
Jung, T. I., Hoffmann, F., Glaeske, G., & Felsenberg, D. (2009). Disease-specific risk for an osteonecrosis of the jaw under bisphosphonate therapy. Journal of Cancer Research and Clinical Oncology. Advance online publication.
New DOI format is: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00432-009-0662-9
Articles, not assigned a DOI, retrieved onlineJournal Article (continuous pagination throughout volume)
Arakji, R. Y., & Lang, K. R. (2008). Avatar business value analysis: A method for the evaluation of business value creation in virtual commerce. Journal of Electronic Commerce Research, 9, 207-218. Retrieved from
http://www.csulb.edu /journals /jecr
Journal Article (paginated by issue)
Williams, J. (2008). The victims of crime. Sociology Review, 17(4), 30-32. Retrieved from
http://www.philipallan.co.uk /sociologyreview /index.htm
Journal Article (paginated by issue), more than seven authors
Fuchs, D., Fuchs, L. S., Al Otaiba, S., Thompson, A., Yen, L., McMaster, K. N., . . . Yang, N. J. (2001). K-PALS: Helping kindergartners with reading readiness: Teachers and researchers in partnerships. Teaching Exceptional Children, 33(4), 76-80. Retrieved from
http://www.cec.sped.org /content /navigationmenu /publications2 /teachingexceptionalchildren
Magazine Article (page numbers appear on article)
Bower, B. (2008, Feb. 9). Dawn of the city: Excavations prompt a revolution in thinking about the earliest cities. Science News, 173(6), 90-92. Retrieved from
Newspaper Article (no page number provided)
Heinlein, G. (2007, July 24). Michigan smoking ban takes big step. Detroit News. Retrieved from
Newsletter article, retrieved from publisher web site
Unless newsletter article is paginated, exclude pages numbers.
Dowd, N., O'Donnell, P., & Snoek-Brown, J. (2007, Winter). WeLead and academic libraries: A bright future. Wisconsin Association of Academic Librarians WAAL Newsletter, 24(1). Retrieved from
http://www.wla.lib.wi.us /waal /newsletter /241.html#welead
No DOI assigned? How to find journal home pageDo steps in order:
1. Look for web address on the article.
2. Type complete journal title in web browser address bar.
3. Check database record.
4. Search journal title in Ulrich's (works great for journal title with common words).
Articles, not assigned a DOI, retrieved online, & no journal web page availableProvide holding database home or entry page URL.
Journal Article (continuous pagination throughout volume)
Billson, C. J. (1892). The Easter hare. Folklore, 3, 441-466. Retrieved from
Langdon, S. W., & Preble, W. (2008). The relationship between levels of perceived respect and bullying in 5th through 12th graders. Adolescence, 43, 485-503. Retrieved from
Articles, not assigned a DOI, retrieved print sourceArticle in a journal (continuous pagination throughout volume)
Organista, K. C. (2009). New practice model for Latinos in need of social work services. Social Work, 54, 297-305.
Article in a Popular Magazine
Caloyianis, N. (1998, September). Greenland sharks. National Geographic, 194(3), 60-71.
Article in a Newspaper (Discontinuous pages)
Von Drehle, D. (2000, January 15). Russians unveil new security plan. The Washington Post, pp. A1, A21.
Web Pages (including CDC & Mayo Clinic)
(Informally Published or Self-archived Work, Manual, p. 212)
Individual web page
Since web pages and documents are similar to print, references to them include the same elements such as author, date, title, etc. Note that proper names and acronyms are capitalized. Date of retrieval is included because "the source material may change over time" (Manual, p. 192, and apastyle.org).
IMPORTANT NOTE: the web page title is not italicized because APA considers web pages informal publications. If the web page is also available as an online document/report (for example in PDF), please download that report, cite in-text appropriately, and use the online report format instead (click here to jump to those examples).
Web page: Individual person(s) as author(s) (note capitalization of proper names, & when individuals to also include name of website)
- Note regarding citing an entire web site source
When discussing an entire web site (as opposed to a specific page on the web site), an entry does not appear in the reference list, but is cited within text as shown in the following sample sentence:
The International Council of Museums web site provides many links to museums, codes of ethics, and the museum profession (http://www.icom.org/).
Lewis, O., & Redish, L. (2011). Native American tribes of Wisconsin. Retrieved April 19, 2012, from the Native Languages of the Americas website:
Web page: Group of people as authors: Mayo Clinic Staff (if citing more than 1 section, use "Print" URL)
Mayo Clinic Staff. (2014). Gestational diabetes. Retrieved October 1, 2014, from
Web page: Organization as author, shows update year
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2012). Diabetes & pregnancy. Retrieved October 1, 2014, from
Web page: Organization as author, no update year (note capitalization of proper names)
Milwaukee Public Museum. (n.d.). Stockbridge-Munsee history. Retrieved April 16, 2012, from
http://www.mpm.edu /wirp /ICW-158.html
- (Informally Published or Self-archived Work, Manual, p. 212)
Illustrations retrieved online
Photographs, drawings, etc. copied or adapted from a Web PageNotes: APA Manual (p. 192) states: "Do not include retrieval dates unless the source material may change over time." Since web page content often changes, provide the date of retrieval. Also, if you must split the URL between two lines, do so before a slash, but do not split http://.
Following illustration title, insert type of medium in square brackets. Illustration types include diagram, photograph, painting, drawing, bronze sculpture, etc.
National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. (2012). Dermal absorption [Diagram]. Retrieved March 11, 2013, from
http://www.cdc.gov /niosh /topics /skin
If illustration does not have a name/title, insert description including type of medium in square brackets following year. This example does not have a publication date.
Florida Hospital. (n.d.). [Untitled photograph of a woman.] Retrieved March 11, 2013, from
Books & Reports
Books & Reports, retrieved online sourceElectronic version of print book, retrieved from STAT!Ref (Use same URL for all STAT!Ref entries)
Nieswiadomy, R. M. (2008). Foundations of nursing research (5th ed.) [STAT!Ref version]. Retrieved from
Electronic version of print book, retrieved from EBSCO eBook Collection (Use same URL for all EBSCO entries)
Vogel, C. G. (1999). Legends of landforms: Native American lore and the geology of the land [EBSCO Reader version]. Retrieved from
Electronic version of print book, retrieved from EBL online library (use same URL for all EBL entries)
Chandler, C. K. (2011). Animal assisted therapy in counseling. Retrieved from
Electronic book - direct link unavailable or URL leads to information on how to obtain the item.
Note use of "Available from" instead of "Retrieved from"
Gonzalez-Mena, J. (2007). Diversity in early care and education: Honoring differences. Available from
Electronic version of book chapter from an edited book
Symonds, P. M. (1958). Human drives. In C. L. Stacey & M. DeMartino (Eds.), Understanding human motivation (pp. 11-22).
Report/Document available on the web, authored by individual(s)--not agency, has publication date & report number
Russo, C. A., & Jiang, H. J. (2006). Hospital stays among patients with diabetes,
2004 (Statistical Brief No. 17). Retrieved from Agency for Healthcare Research & Quality website: http://www.hcup-us.ahrq.gov /reports /statbriefs /sb17.jsp
Report/Document available on the web, no author identified, no publication date (provide title first)
Elementary school math instruction questionnaire results. Most significantly improved schools. (n.d.). Retrieved from
http://www.sharingsuccess.org /code /highperf /2002-03 /es_math /msi /index.htm
Report/Document available on the web, authored by a nongovernmental organization, no publication date
Accreditation Commission for Programs in Hospitality Administration. (n.d.). Handbook of accreditation. Retrieved from
http://www.acpha-cahm.org /forms /acpha /acphahandbook04.pdf
Report/Document from institutional archive or university department web site
Trapp, Y. U. (2005). Multiple intelligences: The learning process in our students. Retrieved from Yale University, Yale-New Haven Teachers Institute website:
http://www.yale.edu /ynhti /curriculum /units /2001 /6 /01.06.10.x.html
Books, retrieved print sourceBook, no author or editor
Place title in the author's position; alphabetize on reference list by the first significant word in the title; cite in text using a few words of the title, or the whole title if it is short, in place of the author's name.Professional guide to diseases. (1982). Springhouse, PA: Intermed Communications.
Book, one author
McKibben, B. (1992). The age of missing information. New York, NY: Random House.
Book, multiple authors
Larson, G. W., Ellis, D. C., & Rivers, P. C. (1984). Essentials of chemical dependency counseling. New York, NY: Columbia University Press.
Edited book (editor in place of author)
Inness, S. A. (Ed.). (1998). Delinquents and debutantes: Twentieth-century American girls' cultures. New York, NY: New York University Press.
Book, subsequent edition (2nd, 3rd, etc.)
Stanfield, P., Cross, N., & Hui, Y. H. (2012). Introduction to the health professions (6th ed.). Burlington, MA: Jones & Bartlett Learning.
Article or chapter in an edited book: Contributed Chapter in authored book (not editors), subsequent edition
Landis, C. A., & Heitkemper, M. M. (2011). Sleep and sleep disorders. In S. L. Lewis, S. R. Dirksen, M. M. Heitkemper, L. Bucher, & I. M. Camera, Medical-surgical nursing: Assessment and management of clinical problems (8th ed., pp. 112-125). St. Louis, MO: Elsevier.
Report from a private organization (author & publisher same)
National League for Nursing. (1990). Self-study report for community health organizations (Pub. No. 21-2329). New York, NY: Author.
Article or chapter in an edited book (indicated editors)
Hartley, J. T., Harker, J. O., & Walsh, D. A. (1980). Contemporary issues and new directions in adult development of learning and memory. In L. W. Poon (Ed.), Aging in the 1980s: Psychological issues (pp. 239-252). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
Reference / Dictionaries / Encylopedias
Reference / Dictionaries / Encyclopedias, retrieved online sourceEntry in an Encyclopedia, retrieved online, no entry author
Boss brass. (2009). In H. Kallmann & G. Potvin (Eds.), Encyclopedia of music in Canada. Retrieved from
Entry in an Encyclopedia, retrieved from STAT!Ref online, no entry author
Vernix caseosa. (2009). In D. Venes (Ed.), Taber's cyclopedic medical dictionary (21st ed.) [STAT!Ref version]. Retrieved from
Entry in an Encyclopedia, electronic version of print book, entry author, multi-volume, direct link unavailable, retrieved from Gale Virtual Reference Library
Hanegraaff, W. (2005). New Age movement. In L. Jones (Ed.), Encyclopedia of religion (2nd ed., Vol. 10, pp. 6495-6500). Retrieved from
Definition Entry in a general Dictionary, retrieved online, no entry author, no date, no editor. Note: When no entry author is provided, move name of word into author position.
Diabetes. (n.d.). In Merriam-Webster's online dictionary (11th ed.). Retrieved from
Entry in a Dictionary, retrieved online, no entry author, no editor
Terrorism. (2009). In DOD dictionary of military and associated terms. Retrieved from
http://www.dtic.mil /doctrine /dod_dictionary /data /t /7591.html
Reference / Dictionaries / Encyclopedias, retrieved print sourceEntry in an encyclopedia
This includes both general and specialized encyclopedias. If an entry does not have a byline, begin the reference with the entry title and publication date.Moore, C. (1991). Mass Spectrometry. In Encyclopedia of chemical technology (4th ed.) (Vol. 15, pp. 1071-1094). New York, NY: Wiley.
Entry in Mental Measurements Yearbook (MMY)
Title of the review and authorship appears in italics at the beginning of the review narrative (example provided below). Also note that many entries published in MMY contain more than one review. Title of the test is capatilized.Review of the Comprehensive Assessment of School Environments by NANCY L. ALLEN, Research Scientist, Educational Testing Service, Princeton, NJ:
Allen, N. L. (1992). Review of the Comprehensive Assessment of School Environments. In J. J. Kramer & J. C. Conoley (Eds.), The eleventh mental measurements yearbook. Lincoln, NE: Buros Institute, University of Nebraska Press.
ERIC documents, retrieved online sourceWorking Paper, from electronic database [ERIC] (Manual, p. 206)
Xu, D., & Jaggars, S. S. (2013). Adaptability to online learning: Differences across types of students and academic subject areas (CCRC Working Paper No. 54). Retrieved from
Dissertations/Theses: Doctoral Dissertations, from electronic database [ERIC] (Manual, pp. 207-208)
Simon, C. E. (1995). Information retrieval techniques: The differences in cognitive strategies and search behaviors among graduate students in an academic library (Doctoral dissertation, Wayne State University). Retrieved from
Speeches/Meeting Papers - Published in proceedings, limited circulation, retrieved from ERIC database (Manual, p. 192 & p. 207)
Lucas, L. A. (1998). Issues in the creation and coordination of an academic computing help desk. Association of Small Computer Users in Education: Proceedings of the ASCUE Summer Conference, North Myrtle Beach, SC (pp. 87-92). Retrieved from
ERIC Digest - Informally published or self-archived work, from ERIC (Manual, p. 212)
Schuetz, P. (2000). Successful collaborations between high schools and community colleges. ERIC Digest. Retrieved from
Dissertations/Theses: Master's Theses - Unpublished, from an electronic database [ERIC] (Manual, pp. 207-208)
Lopez, J. (2005). Characteristics of selected multilingual education programs from around the world: A review of the literature (Unpublished master's thesis). Dominican University of California, Retrieved from
Report - from ERIC (Manual, p. 212)
Brewster, C., & Railsback, J. (2002). Full-day kindergarten: Exploring an option for extended learning. Retrieved from
Speeches/Meeting Papers - Unpublished presentation retrieved from ERIC (Manual, p. 206)
Shaw, C. L. M. (1997, November). Customer satisfaction: Communication training and the help-desk hot-line. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the National Communication Association, Chicago, IL. Retrieved from
ERIC documents, retrieved microfiche sourceBook
Barker, C. L., & Searchwell, C. J. (2000). Writing year-end teacher improvement plans--right now!! The principal's time-saving reference guide. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press. (ED450448)
Report - available from ERIC (microfiche-only, but without report number)
Morgan, D. R. (1982). Desegregating public schools: A handbook for local officials. Norman, OK: Bureau of Government Research, University of Oklahoma. (ED215005)
Speeches/Meeting Papers - Unpublished presentation (microfiche-only)
Kondrick, L. C., & Franklin, K. K. (2003). A conceptual model for a task analysis of methods in action research design. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Mid-South Educational Research Association, Biloxi, MS. (ED482468)
Dissertations & Theses
Disssertations & Theses, retrieved online sourceMaster's thesis from a commercial database
Smith-LaBrash, S. (2010). Influence of learning styles, gender, self-rated computer experience, and age on preference for computer assisted learning versus traditional learning (Master's thesis). Retrieved from ProQuest Dissertations & Theses database. (UMI No. 1483122)
Doctoral Dissertation from a commercial database
Jackson, S. L. (2007). Program effectiveness of job readiness training: An analysis and evaluation of selected programs in St. Louis, Missouri (Doctoral dissertation). Retrieved from ABI/INFORM database. (UMI No. 3241781)
Doctoral Dissertation from an institutional database (sometimes referred to as a Commons)
Naylor, S. M. (2007). Understanding graduate student constructs for finding meaning in the advising experience: A qualitative case study of incoming master’s of social work students (Doctoral dissertation). Retrieved from
Master's Thesis or Doctoral Dissertation using persistent link/identifier or handle (sometimes called uri); the source address "handle.net" usually appears as part of the URL/URI.
Bartel, T. M. C. (2005). Factors associated with attachment in international adoption (Doctoral dissertation). Retrieved from
Dissertations & Theses, retrieved print sourceUnpublished master's thesis (not indexed in Dissertation Express or Dissertation Abstracts/Master's Abstracts)
Paulosky, K. A. (1997). Knowledge and attitudes of pain and activities of nurse administrators (Unpublished master's thesis). Northern Michigan University, Marquette, MI.
Note: According to Anne Gasque (Manual senior editor), since Dissertation Abstracts International is unavailable through NMU, researchers may substitute Dissertation Express information for DAI entry information.
Master's thesis indexed in Dissertation Express
McNiel, D. S. (2006). Meaning through narrative: A personal narrative discussing growing up with an alcoholic mother (Master's thesis). Available from Dissertation Express database. (UMI No. 1434728)
Doctoral dissertation indexed in Dissertation Express
Met, L. (1976). A study of the development and validation of a high school leadership training program: Evaluation of the student leadership program (Doctoral dissertation). Available from Dissertation Express database. (UMI No. 7703303)
Doctoral dissertation abstracted in Dissertation Abstracts International (DAI).
Gould, J. B. (1999). Symbolic speech: Legal mobilization and the rise of collegiate hate speech codes. Dissertation Abstracts International, 60(02), 533A.
Master's Thesis from a university outside of the United States, does not appear in Dissertation Express.
Hansen, C. F. (2007). Active support for instructors and students in an online learning environment (Master's thesis, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Canada).
Doctoral Thesis from a university outside of the United States, publisher is a university & name of province is included in name of university, then do not repeat the name (APA Manual, 6.30). Also, does not appear in Dissertation Express.
Ni, E. A.-L. (2012). New paradigms for active learning (Doctoral thesis, University of Western Ontario, London, Canada).
Doctoral Thesis from a university outside of the United States, publisher is a university & name of province is not included in name of university (include province postal abbreviation). Also, does not appear in Dissertation Express..
Watts, E. (1999). The freshman year experience, 1962-1990: An experiment in humanistic higher education (Doctoral thesis, Queen’s University, Kingston, ON, Canada).
YouTube / Videos / Audio Podcasts
YouTube-type Video Blog Post (Note that titles are not italicized)
Goyen, A. (2007, February 22). Downtown Marquette dog sled races [Video file]. Retrieved from
University of Chicago. (2007, December 12). European cartographers and the Ottoman world, 1500--1750 [Video file]. Retrieved from
Video Webcast from Television Series Single Episode
ABC News (Producer). (2007, September 21). Dying professor's lecture of a lifetime [Video webcast] [Television series episode]. In Good Morning America. Person of the Week. Retrieved from
http://abcnews.go.com /GMA /PersonOfWeek /Story?id=3633945&page=1
Charney, T. (Producer). (2007). Ashes to hope: Overcoming the Detroit riots. U.P. family still struggles to deal with pressure of '67 riot [Audio podcast]. Retrieved from
Film / Movie / Motion Picture
Chrisman, S. (Producer & Director). (2003). Lumberjack life U.P. days of yore [DVD]. Available from
- YouTube-type Video Blog Post (Note that titles are not italicized)
Government documents, retrieved online sourceU.S. Government executive document, authored by agency, with report number.
Note that the agency publication number may appear on the web document or in the library catalog. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. (1999). Smog-Who does it hurt? What you need to know about ozone and your health (EPA Publication No. EPA-452/K-99-001). Retrieved from
http://www.epa.gov /airnow /health /smog.pdf
Government Report/Document, authored by individual(s)--not agency, has publication date & report number.
Werner, C. A. (2011). The older population: 2010 (2010 Census Briefs, No. C2010BR-09). Retrieved from U.S. Census Bureau website:
http://www.census.gov /prod /cen2010 /briefs /c2010br-09.pdf
Russo, C. A., & Jiang, H. J. (2006). Hospital stays among patients with diabetes, 2004 (Statistical Brief No. 17). Retrieved from Agency for Healthcare Research & Quality website:
http://www.hcup-us.ahrq.gov /reports /statbriefs /sb17.jsp
Government report, no document number
U.S. Department of Agriculture. (2011). Food safe families: Four steps to keep your family safer from food poisoning. Retrieved from
Government documents, retrieved print sourceNote: For government documents which do not have a personal author, the Manual 6th ed. indicates providing the parent agency, followed by the sub-agency/-agencies.
U.S. Government executive document
Note that the agency publication number may appear on the document or in the online catalog.
Lindeman, D. A. (1984). Alzheimer's disease handbook (DHHS Publication No. OHDS 84-20813). Washington, DC: Government Publishing Office.
U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service. (2004). Pictured rocks national lakeshore, Michigan final general management plan, wilderness study, environmental impact statement. Washington, DC: Author.
Michigan Government executive document
Michigan Department of Community Health. (2003). Michigan dementia plan summary: Reducing the burdenof dementia in Michigan. Lansing, MI: Author.
Law / Legal
Note about legal citationsFor legislative and legal materials, APA uses the conventional legal citation format found in The Bluebook: A Uniform System of Citation. Guidelines and additional examples appear in the Manual on pp. 216-224.
Law / Legal, retrieved online sourceUnenacted bills - Federal - retrieved through Thomas.gov
Unless you wish to provide parallel traditional and Internet references, it is not necessary to indicate where you retrieved bill text.
For legislative materials such as hearings, reports, bills, etc., provide title, Congress, session, and date.
Josh Miller HEARTS Act, S. 1197, 111th Cong. (2009).
Unenacted bills - State - retrieved through mi.gov
H.B. 4379, 95th Leg,, Reg. Sess. (Mi. 2010).
Court Decision with record number identifier (Note source abbreviations - WestLaw: WL & Lexis-Nexis: LEXIS)
Note: If screen numbers are assigned, precede with an asterisk.
Hornback v. U.S., No. 03-5099, 2004 WL 68510, at *1 (C. A. Fed. Jan. 13, 2004).
Law / Legal, retrieved print sourceU.S. Government Congressional document
For legislative materials such as hearings, reports, bills, etc., provide title, Congress, session, and date.
Charter schools: Hearing before the Subcommittee on Early Childhood, Youth, and Families of the Committee on Education and the Workforce, House of Representatives, 105th Cong. 1 (1998).
Court decision (note that no part of entry is italicized)
United States v. Nixon, 418 U.S. 683 (1974).
Course Materials (syllabus, lecture notes, presentation slides)
- When course materials such as a syllabus, lecture notes, or presentation slides (e.g., PowerPoint) are available only from the course instructor, a classmate, or accessible only through course management systems such as NMU EduCat, Moodle, or Blackboard, then such content is considered Personal Communications (APA Style Guide to Electronic Resources, 2nd ed., p. 31).
- Personal communications do not appear in the reference list, but are cited within text as follows:
L. Flood (personal communication, April 7, 2014)
(N. Gasiewicz, personal communication, March 26, 2014).
Conferences & Presentations
Conferences & Presentations, retrieved online sourcePaper in proceedings published regularly
Rissman, J., Greely, H. T., & Wagner, A. D. (2010). Detecting individual memories through the neural decoding of memory states and past experience. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA, 107, 9849-9854.
Paper in proceedings published regularly, more than seven authors
Brem, S., Bach, S., Kucian, K., Guttorm, T. K., Martin, E., Lyytinen, H., ... Richardson, U. (2010). Brain sensitivity to print emerges when children learn letter-speech sound correspondences. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA, 107, 7939-7944.
Conference presentation slides
Clumpner, K. E. (2007, April). Interdisciplinary blog for liaisons [PowerPoint slides]. Paper presented at the annual conference of the Wisconsin Association of Academic Librarians, Wisconsin Dells, WI. Retrieved from
http://www.wla.lib.wi.us /waal /conferences /2007 /postconference /clumpner.pdf
Conference panel abstract
Freier, M., Bennett, T., & Riley, A. C. (2009, March). Gender, generation, and toxicity: The implications for academic libraries of gender and generational attitudes toward competition and workplace behavior. Panel presented at the ACRL 14th National Conference, Seattle, WA. Abstract retrieved from
http://www.eshow2000.com /acrl /2009 /e_pop_profiles.cfm?session=1&session_id=112539&class_id=113811
Conferences & Presentations, retrieved print sourcePublished Proceedings
Capitalize the name of the symposium.
Barlow, D. H., Chorpita, B. F., & Turovsky, J. (1996). Fear, panic, anxiety, and disorders of emotion. In R. Dienstbier (Ed.), Nebraska Symposium on Motivation: Vol. 43. Perspectives on Anxiety, Panic, and Fear (pp. 251-328). Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press.
Proceedings published regularly (format similar to periodicals)
Wassenaar, L. I., & Hobson, K. A. (1998). Natal origins of migratory monarch butterflies at wintering colonies in Mexico: New isotopic evidence. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA, 95, 15436-15439.
Poster presented at conference
Raspe, P. D. (1991, April). Relationship among given names in the Scilly Isles. Poster session presented at the annual meeting of the American Association of Physical Anthropologists, Milwaukee, WI.
- The APA Publication Manual (6th ed., p. 179) indicates that personal communications include letters, memos, telephone conversations, some electronic communications (e.g., e-mail or messages from nonarchived discussion groups or electronic bulletin boards), etc.
- Personal communications do not appear in the reference list, but are cited within text as follows:
D. Walch (personal communication, January 19, 2007).
(L. Brothen, personal communication, June 6, 2004).
Miscellaneous: Abstract as source, Blog & Mailing List postings, Data Set / Bank
Although referencing the full-text of an article is preferred, abstracts may be used as sources (Manual, p. 202).
Abstract found in database - Abstract as secondary source
Johnson, P.D. (1998). Rural stroke caregivers: A qualitative study of the positive and negative response to the caregiver role. Topics in Stroke Rehabilitation, 5(3), 51-68. Abstract retrieved from CINAHL database. (Accession No. 1999045958)
Abstract found on publisher web site - Abstract as original source
Wang, J. L., Lesage, A., Schmitz, N., & Drapeau, A. (2008). The relationship between work stress and mental disorders in men and women: Findings from a population-based study. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, 62, 42-47. Abstract retrieved from
Message posted to a Blog
Jacobson, J. (2009, November 8). Historic health reform bill passes but at a price: Women's groups have mixed reaction [Web log post]. Retrieved from
http://www.rhrealitycheck.org /blog /2009 /11 /08 /historic-health-reform-bill-passes-but-at-a-price-womens-groups-have-mixed-reaction
Message posted to an electronic mailing list (archived)
SaFeddern, T. (2004, May 10). Summary: EBN (nursing) resources [Electronic mailing list message]. Retrieved from Nursing & Allied Health Resources Section of the Medical Library Association (NAHRS),
http://listserv.kent.edu /cgi-bin /wa.exe?LIST=NAHRS
Graphic representation of data derived from a data set / data bank
When a figure (graph, map, chart, etc.) or table is generated/created from a data set/data bank available online, use the following to reference the data set. Since data sets/banks are frequently updated, provide the URL of the initial web page used to generate the graphic. Note to also properly caption & cite the resulting graphic or table. See examples of how to caption & cite tables & figures from another source.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Injury Prevention and Control. (2007). Behavioral Risk Facto Surveillance System. Trends Data [Data file]. Retrieved from
- Although referencing the full-text of an article is preferred, abstracts may be used as sources (Manual, p. 202).