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Chicago Style

(Formating Revised 8/17/2007)
Notes revised 1/13/2012

NMU Olson Library provides subscription access to the entire Chicago Manual of Style online (16th edition, 2010). Please consult the Manual if you need more information on citing a particular source or if your source is not addressed below. Additionally, consult the Manual for creating parenthetical references and reference lists, and preparing your manuscripts/papers/reports.

This guide includes some of the more common examples for citing references as end notes or in bibliographies. Chicago style dictates that all references are indented and single-spaced. The examples are based on guidelines listed in the The Chicago Manual of Style (15th edition, 2003). It is located in the Library's reference collection under the following call number: Ref Z 253 .U69 2003.

For information on annotated bibliographies, see How to Prepare an Annotated Bibliography from the Olin & Uris Libraries of Cornell University.

The following abbreviations are used in this guide: N= End note entry; B=Bibliography entry; T=In Text entry

  

PRINT SOURCES

 

ELECTRONIC SOURCES

 

MISCELLANEOUS

Book

Web Site

Personal Communication

Book Review

Ebook DVD/Videocassette

Encyclopedia

Scholarly Journal

Sound Recording

Scholarly Journal

Popular Magazine Works of Art

Popular Magazine

Newspaper

   

Newspaper

Government Document

   

Government Publication

Electronic Mail

   

Conference Paper

Works of Art    

Thesis/Dissertation        

PRINT SOURCES

Books

One Author

N      1. Michael Asher, A Desert Dies: The Effects of Urban Development on the Southwest (New York: Viking, 1986), 55.
B Asher, Michael. A Desert Dies: The Effects of Urban Development on the Southwest.
     New York: Viking, 1986.
T (Asher 1986, 55)

 

Two Authors

N      1. Frances Kendall and Leon Low, After Apartheid: The Solution for South Africa (San Francisco: ICS Press, 1987), 101.
B Kendall, Frances, and Leon Low. After Apartheid: The Solution for South Africa. San
     Francisco: ICS Press, 1987.
T (Kendall and Low 1987, 101)

 

Three Authors

N      12. Jeffery Prager, Douglas Longshore, and Melvin Seeman, School Desegregation Research (New York: Plenum Press, 1986).
B Prager, Jeffery, Douglas Longshore, and Melvin Seeman, eds. School Desegregation Research.
      New York: Plenum Press, 1986.
T (Prager, Longshore, and Seeman 1986)

 

More Than Three Authors

N      13. Hugh Clout and others, Western Europe: Geographical Perspectives (New York:
John Wiley & Sons, 1987).
B Clout, Hugh, Mark Blackwsell, Russell King, and David Pinder. Western Europe:
     Geographical Perspectives.
NewYork: John Wiley & Sons, 1987.
T (Clout et al. 1987)

 

Institution or Corporate Author

N      1. University of Delaware, Video Production Unit, Reading for Children (Newark, Del.: International Reading Association, 1991), 53.
B University of Delaware, Video Production Unit. Reading for Children. Newark, Del.: International
     Reading Association, 1991.
T (University of Delaware 1991, 53)

 

Editor or Compiler as Author

N      12. Spyros Doxiades, ed., Ethical Dilemmas in Health Promotion (New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1987).
B Doxiades, Spyros, ed. Ethical Dilemmas in Health Promotion. New York: John Wiley & Sons,
     1987.
T (Doxiades 1987)
 


Chapter or Article by One Author Contained Within Book by an Editor or Other Author.

N       19. Kim N. Dietrich, "Environmental Neurotoxicants and Psychological Development," in Pediatric Neuropsychology: Research, Theory, and Practice, ed. Keith Owen Yeates and M. Douglas Ris, 217-222 (New York: The Guilford Press, 2000).
B Dietrich, Kim N. "Environmental Neurotoxicants and Psychological Development." In Pediatric
     Neuropsychology: Research, Theory, and Practice
, ed. Keith Owen Yeates and
     M. Douglas Ris, 206-234. New York: The Guilford Press, 2000.
T (Dietrich 2000)


 

Book Review

N      1. Erika Dyke, review of Jailed for Possession: Illegal Drug Use, Regulation, and Power in Canada, 1920-1961, by Catherine Carstairs, Canadian Historical Review 87, no.4 (2006): 691.
B Dyke, Erika. Review of Jailed for Possession: Illegal Drug Use, Regulation, and Power
     in Canada
, 1920-1961, by Catherine Carstairs. Canadian Historical Review 87,
     no.4 (2006): 691-693.
T (Dyke 2006, 691)


 

Encyclopedia Article

Chicago Manual states "well-known reference books are generally not listed in bibliographies. In notes... the facts of publication are usually omitted, but the edition, if not the first, must be specified (section 17.238)"

N      1. World Book Encyclopedia, 1999 ed., s.v. "Gene Therapy."
T In the entry on gene therapy, in the 1999 edition of World Book Encyclopedia..."


 

Article in a Scholarly Journal

EXAMPLE #1 - No issue number present

N      12. Barbara Mueller, "Reflections of Culture: An Analysis of American and Japanese Advertising Appeals," Journal of Advertising 27 (June 1987): 52.
B Mueller, Barbara. "Reflections of Culture: An Analysis of American and Japanese Advertising
     Appeals." Journal of Advertising 27 (June 1987): 48-57.
T (Mueller 1987, 52)


 

EXAMPLE #2 - Issue number is present; no need for month or season preceeding date.

N      12. Kevin J. Gutzwiller and Stanley H. Anderson, "Spatial Extent of Human- Intrusion Effects on Subalpine Bird Distributions," American Birds 27, no. 2 (1999): 112.
B Gutzwiller, Kevin J., and Stanley H. Anderson. "Spatial Extent of Human-Intrusion Effects on
     Subalpine Bird Distributions." American Birds 27, no. 2 (1999): 110-135.
T (Gutzwiller 1999)


 

Article in a Popular Magazine

If in doubt whether a periodical is a magazine or journal, use magazine form if the volume number is not easily located.

N      6. Billy Smith, "NATO Peacekeepers Encounter Resistance in Bosnia," Time, November 15, 1998, 23.
B Smith, Billy, "NATO Peacekeepers Encounter Resistance in Bosnia." Time, November
     15, 1998, 21-23.
T (Smith 1998, 23)


 

Newspaper Article

Newspaper articles may be cited in running text ("As Paul Blackhorn noted in a Chicago Tribune article on May 10, 2007, . . . ") instead of in a note or an in-text citation, and they are commonly omitted from a bibliography or reference list as well.

EXAMPLE #1 - Formal example

N      1. Paul Bremmer, "Acres of the World's Farmland Sown with Genetically Modified Food," USA Today, February 11, 2000, Life section.
B Bremmer, Paul. "Acres of the World's Farmland Sown with Genetically Modified Food." USA
     Today
, February 11, 2000.
T (Bremmer 2000)


EXAMPLE #2 - Unsigned article. Unsigned articles are best dealt with in text or notes (17.192). If a bibliography entry is needed, the newspaper stands in place of author.

N      1. "Church Builds Day Care as Outreach into Community," Detroit News, Early Morning edition, August 20, 2007.
B Detroit News, "Church Builds Day Care as Outreach into Community," Early Morning edition,
     August 20, 2007.
T (Detroit News 2007)


 

Government Document

The Chicago Manual has an extensive discussion of government documents starting at 17.295. Please consult the relevant sections if you have further questions. Executive Department Document Chicago style states "when authors are identified, their names should be cited (17.317)."

EXAMPLE #1

N       15. U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service, America's Landscape Legacy (Washington D.C.: Government Publishing Office, 1993), 13.
B
U.S. Department of the Interior. National Park Service. America's Landscape Legacy.
     Washington D.C.: Government Publishing Office, 1993.
T (U.S. Department of the Interior 1993, 13)


EXAMPLE #2

N       1. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Water, Office of Wetlands, Oceans, and Watersheds, America's Wetlands :Our Vital Link Between Land and Water, 1995, Report EPA 843-K-95-001 (Washington, DC, 136
B U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Office of Water, Office of Wetlands, Oceans, and
     Watersheds. America's Wetlands :Our Vital Link Between Land and Water. 1995. Report
     EPA 843-K-95-001. Washington, DC.
T (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency 1999, 136)

 

Hearing
N


     1. House Committee on Commerce, Subcommittee on Oversight and Investigations, Date Rape Drugs : Hearing Before the Subcommittee on Oversight and Investigations of the Committee on Commerce, House of Representatives, 106 Cong., 1st sess., March 11, 1999, 57.
B U.S. Congress. House. Committee on Commerce. Subcommittee on Oversight and
     Investigations. Date rape drugs : hearing before the Subcommittee on Oversight and
     Investigations of the Committee on Commerce, House of Representatives
. 106 Cong., 1st
     sess., March 11, 1999.
T (U.S. House Committee 1999, 57)


 

Conference Paper

If a paper is included in a published proceedings then it can be treated like a chapter in a book (17.68-17.71). The following example is for a paper not included in a proceedings.

N      1. Terrence R. Fehner, "The U.S. Department of Energy and the Cold War," (paper, presented at the conference on The Power of Free Inquiry and Cold War International History, College Park, Md., September 26, 1998).
B Fehner, Terrence R. "The U.S. Department of Energy and the Cold War." Paper, conference on
     The Power of Free Inquiry and Cold War International History, College Park,
     Md., September 25-26, 1998.
T (Fehner 1998)


 

Thesis/Dissertation

N      1. Abigail Keller, "Dreaming the Train Underwater" (master's theses, Northern Michigan University 2007), 17-20.
B
Keller, Abigail. "Dreaming the Train Underwater." Master's Thesis, Northern Michigan University,
     2007.
T (Keller 2007, 17)


 

ELECTRONIC SOURCES

Web Site


A Web site is best dealt with in notes or in text; they are commonly omitted from a bibliography or reference list. Below are more formal examples.

EXAMPLE #1 - Author is available

N      1. Ronald L. Fingerson, "John Wilkes Booth in the Bollinger Lincoln Collection," University of Iowa, Special Collections and University Archives, http://www.lib.uiowa.edu/spec-coll/Bai/fingerson.htm
B Fingerson, Ronald L. "John Wilkes Booth in the Bollinger Lincoln Collection." University
     of Iowa, Special Collections and University Archives,
     http://www.lib.uiowa.edu/spec-coll/Bai/fingerson.htm
T (Fingerson)


EXAMPLE #2
- If there is no author, the owner of the site may substitute (17.237)

N      5. Library of Congress, "Cold War: Cuban Missle Crisis," http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/archives/colc.html.
B Library of Congress. "Cold War: Cuban Missle Crisis." http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/archives/colc.html.
T (Library of Congress)


EXAMPLE #3
- For content from informal sites such as personal home pages, descriptive phrases may be used when no title exists on the page (17.237)

N       1. Marquette County History Museum Web site, "Peter White," http://www.marquettecohistory.org/pw.htm
B Marquette County History Museum. "Peter White." http://www.marquettecohistory.org/events.htm.
T (Marquette County History Museum)


 

Ebook

N      1. Elinor Ann Accampo, Gender and the Politics of Social Reform in France, 1870-1914 (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1995), http://hdl.handle.net/2027/heb.02489.
B Accampo, Elinor Ann. Gender and the Politics of Social Reform in France, 1870-1914.
     Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1995. http://hdl.handle.net/2027/heb.02489.
T (Accampo 1995, 259)


 

Article in a Scholarly Journal

EXAMPLE #1 - If page numbers are listed, include them in the bibliography.

N     1. Robin Lucy, "Flying Home: Ralph Ellison, Richard Wright, and the Black Folk During World War II," Journal of American Folklore 120, no. 477 (2007): 259, http://find.galegroup.com/.
B Lucy, Robin. "Flying Home: Ralph Ellison, Richard Wright, and the Black Folk During World War II."
     Journal of American Folklore 120, no. 477 (2007): 257-283, http://find.galegroup.com.
T (Lucy 2007, 259)

EXAMPLE #2 - If access date is required include it parenthetically at the end of the citation; note example below does not have page numbers included in the article.

N     1. Daniel Todman , "World War I Battles and Strategy," Canadian Journal
of History
42, no. 1 (2007), http://find.galegroup.com (accessed August 21, 2007).
B Todman, Daniel. "World War I Battles and Strategy." Canadian Journal of History
     42, no. 1 (2007), http://find.galegroup.com (accessed August 21, 2007).
T (Todman 2007)


EXAMPLE #3
- If a digital object identifier (DOI) number is available, include it in place of page numbers.

N      1. John D. Fair, "The Intellectual JFK: Lessons in Statesmanship from British History,"
Diplomatic History 30, no. 1 (2006), doi:10.1111/j.1467-7709.2006.00540.x, http://www.blackwell- synergy.com.
B Fair, John D. "The Intellectual JFK: Lessons in Statesmanship from British History." Diplomatic  History 30,
     no. 1 (January 2006), doi:10.1111/j.1467-709.2006.00540.x, http://www.blackwell-synergy.com.
T (Fair 2006)


 

Article in a Popular Magazine

N       1. John Greenwald, "School for Profit: Private Companies Can Run Public Schools, But Can They Make Them Pay?," Time, March 22, 2000, http://www.time.com.
B Greenwald, John. "School for Profit: Private Companies Can Run Public Schools, But Can  They Make Them Pay?" Time, March 22,
     2000. http://www.time.com/.
T (Greenwald 2000)


 

Newspaper Article

N      2. Jodi Wilgoren, "A Revolution in Education Clicks Into Place," New York Times, March, 26, 2000, http://www.nytimes.com.
B Wilgoren, Jodi. "A Revolution in Education Clicks Into Place," New York Times, March 26, 2000, http://www.nytimes.com.
T (Wilgoren 2000)


 

Government Document

N      1. Environmental Protection Agency, Smog-Who does it hurt? What you need to know about ozone and your health, 1999, http://www.epa.gov/airprogm/oar/oaqps/airnow/health/index.html.
B United States. Environmental Protection Agency. Smog-Who does it hurt? What you need to
     know about ozone and your health
. 1999. http://www.epa.gov/airprogm/
     oar/oaqps/airnow/health/index.html.
T (Environmental Protection Agency 1999)


 

Electronic Mail

References to email converstations are usually run into the text or given in a note (17.208). They are rarely listed in a bibliography.
N       1. Paul Jameson, email message to author, May 10, 1998.
T In an email message with the author on May 10, 1998, Paul Jameson speculated the.....


 

Original work of art [electronic]

N      3. Alexei Jawlensky, Girl with the Green Face, oil on composition board, 1910, Art Institute of Chicago, Chicago, http://www.artstor.org (accessed July 10, 2010).
B Jawlensky, Alexei. Girl with the Green Face. Oil on composition board, 1910. Art
     Institute of Chicago, Chicago. http://www.artstor.org (accessed July 10,
     2010).
T (Jawlensky, Girl with the Green Face, oil on composition board, 1910, Art Institute of Chicago, Chicago)


MISCELLANEOUS

Personal Communication

References to conversations, letters, memorandum, email messages and the like are cited in text or in a note, rarely in in a bibliography.

Correspondence:

N       1. Charles Kuralt to John D. Voelker, 27 September 1971, Voelker Papers, Central Upper Peninsula and Northern Michigan University Archives, Northern Michigan University, MSS-39, 15/7, 1-4-4.
T In a letter to Voelker on September 27, 1971, Charles Kuralt spoke of......

 

Memorandum:

N      1. President Judith I. Bailey to Ms. Darlene Pierce, memorandum, October 10, 1999, Office of the President, Central Upper Peninsula and Northern Michigan University Archives, Northern Michigan University, 0201-01, 2/3, 12-01-03.
T

In a memorandum dated October 10, 1999, President Bailey advised Darlene Pierce, Dean of Academic Information Services...


 

DVD and Videocassette

EXAMPLE #1

N      10. Finnish settlement in the Lake Superior region, Videorecording (Marquette, Mich.: DK Video Productions, 1997).
B Finnish settlement in the Lake Superior region. Marquette, Mich.: DK Video Productions,
      1997. Videorecording.
T In the 1997 videorecording, Finish Settlement in the Lake Superior Region, Arnold Alanen...


EXAMPLE #2

N      1. Benjamin Franklin: Citizen of the World, DVD, directed by Monte Markham and Adam Friedman (New York : A&E Home Video, 1995).
B Benjamin Franklin: Citizen of the World. DVD. Directed by Monte Markham and Adam
     Friedman. New York : A&E Home Video, 1995.
T

In a commentary on their movie, Benjamin Franklin: Citizen of the World, Markham and Friedman explain...


 

Sound Recording

EXAMPLE #1

N      1. Jessie Kennedy Prescott, California Sheep Ranching and Family Life in the 1880s Interview with Jessie Kennedy Prescott, 3 3/4 ips, 5 in., 1962, tape reel.
B Prescott, Jessie Kennedy. California Sheep Ranching and Family Life in the 1880s
     Interview with Jessie Kennedy Prescott
. 3 3/4 ips, 5 in. 1962. Tape reel.
T (Prescott 1962)


EXAMPLE #2

N       2. Larry B. Massie, Michigan Memories True Stories from Two Peninsulas' Past, (Southfield, Mich.: Readings for the Blind, 1999), cassette.
B Massie, Larry B. Michigan Memories True Stories from Two Peninsulas' Past. Southfield,
     Mich.: Readings for the Blind, 1999. Cassette.
T (Massie 1999)


 

Works of Art

Exhibition catalog (cited as a book)

Organizational author

N      13. New York State College of Ceramics at Alfred University, 5 x 7 : Seven Ceramic Artists Each Acknowledge Five Sources of Inspiration (New York: School of Art and Design, New York State College of Ceramics at Alfred University, 1993), 23.
B New York State College of Ceramics at Alfred University. 5 x 7 : Seven Ceramic
     Artists Each Acknowledge Five Sources of Inspiration. New York: School of
     Art and Design, New York State College of Ceramics at Alfred University, 1993.
T (New York State College 1993, 23)

Individual as author or editor

N      1. Linda Merrill, After Whistler: The Artist and His Influence on American Painting (Atlanta: High Museum of Art, 2003), 63
B Merrill, Linda. After Whistler: The Artist and His Influence on American Painting.
     Atlanta: High Museum of Art, 2003.
T (Merrill 2003, 63)

Two publishers

N      3. Lisa M. Messinger, Abstract Expressionism: Works on Paper, Selections from the Metropolitan Museum of Art (New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1992, Atlanta: High Musem of Art, 1992), 121.
B Messinger, Lisa M. Abstract Expressionism: Works on Paper, Selections from the
     Metropolitan Museum of Art. New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1992.
     Atlanta: High Musem of Art, 1992.
T (Messinger 1992, 121)

Original work of art

N      1. Henri Matisse, The Window Interieur Au Myosotis, oil on canvas, 1916, Detroit Metropolitan Museum of Art, Detroit.
B Matisse, Henri. The Window Interieur Au Myosotis. Oil on canvas, 1916. Detroit
     Metropolitan Museum of Art, Detroit.
T (Matisse, The Window Interieur Au Myosotis, oil on canvas, 1916, Detroit Metropolitan Museum of Art, Detroit)

Work of art reproduced in a book

N      2. Bruce Nauman, ""Double Poke in the Eye II," neon sculpture, as reproduced in The Decade Show (New York: Museum of Contemporary Hispanic Art, 1990), plate LVII.
B Nauman, Bruce. "Double Poke in the Eye II." Neon sculpture. As reproduced in
     The Decade Show. New York: Museum of Contemporary Hispanic Art, 1990.
     Plate LVII.
T (Nauman 1990, plate LVII)




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