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Turabian Style

(Revised 7/11/2006)

This guide includes some of the more common examples for citing references as end notes or in bibliographies. Turabian style dictates that all references are indented and single-spaced. The examples are based on guidelines listed in the A Manual for Writers of Term Papers, Theses, and Dissertations (6th edition, 1996). This source is located in the Library's reference collection under the following call number: Ref LB 2369 .T8 1996.

Please consult the Manual if you need more information on citing a particular source or if your source is not addressed below. Additionally, consult the Manual for creating parenthetical references and reference lists.

For additional information on citing works in-text (parenthetical citations), see History: Documenting Sources by Diane Hacker of Prince George's Community College.

For information on annotated bibliographies, see How to Prepare an Annotated Bibliography from the Olin & Uris Libraries of Cornell University.

The following abbreviations are used in this guide: N= End note entry; B=Bibliography entry

PRINT SOURCES

 

ELECTRONIC SOURCES

Books

General Citation Information 

Periodicals

Entire Web Site

Newspapers

Individual Part Within A Web Site

Government Publications

Scholarly Journals (publicly accessible)

Unpublished Materials

Scholarly Journals (subscription access, e.g. FirstSearch)

 

 

Popular Magazine (publicly accessible)

 

NON PRINT SOURCES

Popular Magazines (subscription access, e.g. FirstSearch)

Video

Newspapers (publicly accessible)

Sound Recordings

Newspapers (subscription access, e.g. Newsbank)

   

CD-ROM

   

Government Document

   

Electronic Mail

PRINT SOURCES

Books

No Author

N
1. The Cybarian's Manual (Chicago: American Library Association, 1997), 23-24.
B The Cybarian's Manual. Chicago: American Library Association, 1997.

One author

N
1. Michael Asher, A Desert Dies: The Effects of Urban Development on
the Southwest (New York: Viking, 1986), 55.
B Asher, Michael. A Desert Dies: The Effects of Urban Development on
the Southwest. New York: Viking, 1986.

Two authors

N
1. Frances Kendall and Leon Low, After Apartheid: The Solution for South Africa,
(San Francisco, ICS Press, 1987), 101.
B Kendall, Frances, and Leon Low. After Apartheid: The Solution for South Africa.
San Francisco, ICS Press, 1987.
N
10. P. K. Johnson and R.A. Berdroff, America Explored: A
Geographical History of North America, (Deerfield, IL: Geo Press, 1995), 153.
B Johnson, P. K., and R.A. Berdroff. America Explored: A Geographical History of
North America. Deerfield, IL: Geo Press, 1995.

Three authors

N
12. Jeffery Prager, Douglas Longshore, and Melvin Seeman,
School Desegregation Research (New York: Plenum Press, 1986), 12
B Prager, Jeffery, Douglas Longshore, and Melvin Seeman. School Desegregation Research.
New York: Plenum Press, 1986.

More than three authors

N
13. Hugh Clout and others, Western Europe: Geographical
Perspectives (New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1987), 39.
B Clout, Hugh, Mark Blackwsell, Russell King, and David Pinder. Western Europe:
Geographical Perspectives. New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1987.

Institution or corporate author

N
1. University of Delaware, Video Production Unit, Reading
for Children (Newark, Del.: International Reading Association, 1991), 53.
B University of Delaware, Video Production Unit. Reading for Children. Newark, Del.:
International Reading Association, 1991.

Editor or compiler as author


N
12. Spyros Doxiades, ed., Ethical Dilemmas in Health Promotion
(New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1987), 67.
B Doxiades, Spyros, ed. Ethical Dilemmas in Health Promotion. New York: John Wiley &
Sons, 1987.

Chapter or Article by One Author Contained Within Book by Author

N
19. Kim N. Dietrich, "Environmental Neurotoxicants and Psychological
Development," in Pediatric Neuropsychology: Research, Theory, and Practice, ed.
Keith Owen Yeates and M. Douglas Ris (New York: The Guilford Press, 2000), 217.
B Dietrich, Kim N. "Environmental Neurotoxicants and Psychological Development." In
Pediatric Neuropsychology: Research, Theory, and Practice, ed. Keith Owen Yeates and M. Douglas Ris, 206-234, New York: The Guilford Press, 2000.

Articles in encyclopedias

Turabian states "well-known reference books are generally not listed in bibliographies. In notes... the facts of publication are usually omitted, but the edition, if not the first, must be specified (section 11.42)"

Unsigned article

N
1. World Book Encyclopedia, 1999 ed., s.v. "gene therapy."

Signed article

N
1. Jonathon Demitrov, "Alexander II," in The New Encyclopedia Britannica,15th ed.


Periodicals

Article in Scholarly Journals

Examples for journals that maintain the page sequence between issues.

N
12 Barbara Mueller, "Reflections of Culture: An Analysis of
American and Japanese Advertising Appeals," Journal of Advertising 27 (June 1987): 52.
B Mueller, Barbara. "Reflections of Culture: An Analysis of American and Japanese Advertising
Appeals." Journal of Advertising 27 (June 1987): 48-57.

Examples for journals that renumber the pages for each issue.

N
12. Kevin J. Gutzwiller and Stanley H. Anderson, "Spatial extent of human-
intrusion effects on subalpine bird distributions," American Birds 27,
no. 2 (1999): 112.
B Gutzwiller, Kevin J., and Stanley H. Anderson. "Spatial extent of human-intrusion
effects on subalpine bird distributions." American Birds 27, no.
2 (1999): 110-135.

Articles in Popular Magazines

N
6. Billy Smith, "NATO Peacekeepers Encounter Resistance in Bosnia,"
Time, 15 November 1998, 23.
B Smith, Billy, "NATO Peacekeepers Encounter Resistance in Bosnia." Time, 15 November
1998, 21-23.

N
1 "Beyond the Drug War," Nation, 20 September 1999, 3.
B "Beyond the Drug War." Nation, 20 September 1999, 3.


Newspaper Articles

Turabian states, "news items from daily newspapers are rarely listed separately in a bibliography. If a newspaper is cited only once or twice, a note in the text is sufficient (section 11.44)." See sections 8.105-10 for more details on citing newspapers

N
1. "Acres of the World's Farmland Sown with Genetically Modified
Food," USA Today, 11 February 2000, 35.
B "Acres of the World's Farmland Sown with Genetically Modified Food." USA Today, 11
February 2000.


Government documents

Turabian has an extensive discussion of government documents in sections 12.1-33. Please consult these sections if you have further questions.

Executive Department documents

Turabian states "when authors are identified, they should be included in the citation along with the issuing body. The citation usually begins with the name of the issuing body, but may begin with the name of the author (section 12.17)."

N
15. Department of the Interior, National Park Service, America's
Landscape Legacy (Washington D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1993), 13.
B U.S. Department of the Interior. National Park Service. America's Landscape Legacy.
Washington D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1993.

N
1. Department of the Interior, National Park Service, Columbia Cascades
Support Office, Hard Drive to the Klondike : Promoting Seattle During the Gold Rush, A
Historic Resource Study for the Seattle Unit of the Klondike Gold Rush National
Historical Park, by Lisa, Mighetto and Marcia Babcock Montgomery, (Washington D.C.:
Government Printing Office, 1998), 33.
B U.S. Department of the Interior. National Park Service. Columbia Cascades Support
Office. Hard Drive to the Klondike: Promoting Seattle During the Gold Rush, A
Historic Resource Study for the Seattle Unit of the Klondike Gold Rush National
Historical Park, by Lisa, Mighetto and Marcia Babcock Montgomery. WashingtoN D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1998.

Hearings

N
1. Congress, House, Committee on Commerce, Subcommittee on Oversight and
Investigations, Date rape drugs : hearing before the Subcommittee on Oversight and
Investigations of the Committee on Commerce, House of Representatives, 106 Cong., 1st
sess., 11 March 1999, 57.
B U.S. Congress. House. Committee on Commerce. Subcommittee on Oversight and
Investigations. Date rape drugs : hearing before the Subcommittee on
Oversight and Investigations of the Committee on Commerce, House of
Representatives. 106 Cong., 1st sess., 11 March 1999.

Michigan Document

N
1. Department of Mental Health, Delivering the promise: An Enhanced
Model for Michigan's Public Mental Health System (Lansing, MI: Department of Mental
Health, 1992), 4.
B Michigan. Department of Mental Health. Delivering the promise: An Enhanced Model
for Michigan's Public Mental Health System. Lansing, MI: Department of Mental
Health, 1992.


Unpublished Materials

Correspondence:

N
1. Charles Kuralt to John D. Voelker, September 27, 1971, Voelker Papers,
Central Upper Peninsula and Northern Michigan University Archives, Northern Michigan
University, MSS-39, 15/7, 1-4-4.
B Voelker, John D., papers, Central Upper Peninsula and Northern University Archives,
Northern Michigan University, MSS-39.

Memorandum:

N
1. President Judith I. Bailey to Ms. Darlene Pierce, October 10, 1999, Office
of the President, General Subject Correspondence, Central Upper Peninsula and Northern
Michigan University Archives, Northern Michigan University, 0201-01, 2/3, 12-01-03.
B Office of the President, Northern Michigan University, General Subject Correspondence,
Central Upper Peninsula and Northern Michigan University Archives,
Northern Michigan University, 0201-01.

Reports and/or Studies:

N
1. "North-Central Accreditation Self-Study Report, 1994," Office of the Vice
President for Finance and Administration, General Subject Correspondence, Central
Upper Peninsula and Northern Michigan University Archives, Northern Michigan
University, 0300-01, 40/2, 20-01-58.
B Office of the Vice President for Finance and Administration, General
Subject Correspondence, Central Upper Peninsula and Northern Michigan University
Archives, Northern Michigan University, 0300-01.

Photographs:

N
1. "Mens Basketball Playoffs, 1974," Office of Communications
and Marketing, Photographic Records, Central Upper Peninsula and Northern Michigan
University Archives, Northern Michigan University, 0501-10, 2/4, 13-01-10.
B Office of Communications and Marketing, Photographic Records, Central Upper
Peninsula and Northern Michigan University Archives, Northern Michigan
University, 0501-10.


NON PRINT RESOURCES

Video

N
10. Finnish settlement in the Lake Superior region (Marquette, Mich.:
DK Video Productions, 1997), Videorecording.
B Finnish settlement in the Lake Superior region. Marquette, Mich.: DK Video
Productions, 1997. Videorecording.

N
1. Monte Markham and Adam Friedman, directors, Benjamin Franklin:
Citizen of the World (New York : A&E Home Video, 1995), videorecording.
B Monte Markham and Adam Friedman, directors. Benjamin Franklin: Citizen of the
World. New York : A&E Home Video, 1995. Videorecording.

Sound Recordings

N
1. Jessie Kennedy Prescott, California Sheep Ranching and Family Life
in the 1880s Interview with Jessie Kennedy Prescott, 3 3/4 ips, 5 in., 1962, tape reel.
B Prescott, Jessie Kennedy. California Sheep Ranching and Family Life in the 1880s
Interview with Jessie Kennedy Prescott. 3 3/4 ips, 5 in. 1962. Tape reel.

N
2. Larry B. Massie, Michigan Memories True Stories from Two Peninsulas' Past,
(Southfield, Mich.: Readings for the Blind, 1999), cassette.
B Massie, Larry B. Michigan Memories True Stories from Two Peninsulas' Past. (Southfield,
Mich.: Readings for the Blind, 1999). Cassette.


ELECTRONIC SOURCES

Turabian provides very few guidelines for citing electronic materials in the 6th edition (1996) of the manual. The definitive standard for citing electronic information in Turabian style will likely not appear until the release of the 15th edition of the Chicago Manual of Style (expected in 2001). Maurice Crouse (Department of History, The University of Memphis) has examined other recognized styles for citing electronic information (e.g. MLA, APA, and Li and Crane) and developed a citation format that maintains the spirit of Turabian style. The examples below are based on this extrapolation. For further information, see Crouse's Web page: http://www.people.memphis.edu/~mcrouse/elcite.html

In the formats listed below, if the model calls for an item that is missing from the information you are citing, you may simply pass over it to the next item.

Entire Web Site

Author or Editor, Title of Work, edition (Date). Available Protocol [Type of medium]:
Additional retrieval information [Access date].
N
5. Kristian Werling, James Madison Develops Principles for the US Constitution,
1786, (1998) [Internet online]; available from <http://campus.northpark.edu/history/
WebChron/USA/Madison.html> [21 January 1999].


Author or Editor. Title of Work. Edition. Date. Available Protocol [Type of medium]:
Additional retrieval information [Access date].
B Werling, Kristian. James Madison Develops Principles for the US Constitution, 1786.
(1998). Internet online. Available from <http://campus.northpark.edu/history/WebChron/
USA/Madison.html> [21 January 1999].

Individual Part within Web Site

N
10. William M. Brinton, "Chapter VI: World War II and Its Aftermath to 1952,"
in An Abridged History of the United States, (1996) [Internet online]; available from http://www.us-
history.com/the_frame.html [20 March 2000].
B Brinton, William M. ""Chapter VI: World War II and Its Aftermath to 1952." In AN
Abridged History of the United States, (1996). Internet online. Available from
[20 March 2000].

Articles in Scholarly Journals

  (publicly available)
Author or Editor, "Title of Article," Title of Periodical volume, issue (Date): paging.
Available [Type of medium]: [Access date].
N
1. Michael Jay Friedman, "Congress, the President, and the Battle of Ideas:
Vietnam Policy, 1965-1969," Essays in History 41 (1999) [journal online];
<http://etext.lib.virginia.edu/journals/EH/EH41/Friedman41.html> [23 May 2000].

Author or Editor. "Title of Article." Title of Periodical volume, issue (Date): paging. Available
Protocol [Type of medium]: Additional retrieval information [Access date].
B Friedman, Michael Jay. "Congress, the President, and the Battle of Ideas: Vietnam
Policy, 1965-1969." Essays in History 41 (1999). Journal online;
<http://etext.lib.virginia.edu/journals/EH/EH41/Friedman41.html>
[23 May 2000].

Articles in Scholarly Journals

  (subscription based, e.g. FirstSearch)
Author or Editor, "Title of Article," Title of Periodical volume, issue (Date): paging.

Available [Type of medium]: Protocol/Site/Path/File Path: Supplier/Database identifier or number/Item name or number [Access date].

N
Author or Editor. "Title of Article." Title of Periodical volume, issue
(Date): paging. Available [Type of medium]: Protocol/Site/Path/File Path: Supplier/Database identifier
or number/Item name or number [Access date].
B Van Horn, Royal W. "Violence and Video Games." Phi Delta Kappan 81 (October
1999). Available [Online]: http://firstsearch.oclc.org Path: FirstSearch/Wilson Select/BEDI99028947, [12 February 2000].

The following example is for a reference to an online article in the Adobe Acrobat format (.pdf), where the page numbering is maintained and shown on the screen.

N
2. Bernt Bratsberg, "Legal Versus Illegal U.S. Immigration and Source
Country Characteristics," Southern Economic Journal 61 (January 1995): 719. Available
[Online]: http://www.galegroup.com Path: Gale Group/Infotrac Web/GeneralReference
Center Gold/A16564083, [13 February 2000].
B Bratsberg, Bernt. "Legal Versus Illegal U.S. Immigration and Source Country
Characteristics." Southern Economic Journal 61 (January 1995): 719-725.
Available [Online]: http://www.galegroup.com Path: Gale Group/Infotrac/
General Reference Center Gold/A16564083, [13 February 2000].

Articles in Popular Magazines

   (publicly available)

N
1. John Greenwald, "School for Profit: Private Companies Can Run Public
Schools, But Can They Make Them Pay?," Time, 22 March 2000. Available [Online]:
http://www.time.com/time/magazine/articles/0,3266,40756,00.html [22 March 2000].
B Greenwald, John. "School for Profit: Private Companies Can Run Public Schools, But
Can They Make Them Pay?" Time, 22 March 2000. Available [Online]:
http://www.time.com/time/magazine/articles/0,3266,40756,00.html [22 March 2000].

Articles in Popular Magazines

  (subscription based, e.g. FirstSearch)
N
1. Jay Tolson, "Sex, Pills, and Women's Lib," U.S. News & World Report,
27 December 1999. Available [Online]: http://firstsearch.oclc.org Path: FirstSearch/WilsoN Select/BRDG99081290, [22 July 2000].
B Tolson, Jay. "Sex, Pills, and Women's Lib." U.S. News & World Report, 27 December 1999.
Available [Online]: http://firstsearch.oclc.org Path: FirstSearch/WilsoN Select/BRDG99081290, [22 July 2000].

Articles in Newspapers

  (publicly available)

Turabian states, "news items from daily newspapers are rarely listed separately in a bibliography. If a newspaper is cited only once or twice, a note in the text is sufficient (section 11.44)."

N
2. Jodi Wilgoren, "A Revolution in Education Clicks Into Place," 26
March 2000. Available [Online]: http://www.nytimes.com/library/tech/00/03/biztech/articles/
26laptop-edu.html> [26 March 2000].

Articles in Newspapers

  (subscription based, e.g. Newsbank, FirstSearch, etc.)
N
1. "Abandoned Infants: Prevention Counts," New York Times, 10 December
1999. Available [Online]: http://firstsearch.oclc.org Path: FirstSearch/New York Times/
991210827282, [22 July 2000].
N 34. R. Robyn MacDonald, "Human Contraband: Asian Women Expected Jobs, Not Prostitution,"
Atlanta Journal, 31 August 1999. Available [CD-ROM]: Newsbank/
008030DF2F9E1DE58BCOA[5 April 2000].

CD-ROM

N
Renewable Resources in the U.S. Electricity Supply, (1996). Available
[CD-ROM]: Energy Info Disc/Publication by Fuel Type and Energy Area [5 December 1999].
B Renewable Resources in the U.S. Electricity Supply. 1996. Available [CD-ROM]: Energy
Info Disc/Publication by Fuel Type and Energy Area [5 December 1999].

Government Document

N
Environmental Protection Agency, Smog-Who does it hurt? What you need
to know about ozone and your health, 1999. Available [Online]: http://www.epa.gov/airprogm/oar/
oaqps/airnow/health/index.html> [25 January 2000].
B United States. Environmental Protection Agency. Smog-Who does it hurt? What you
need to know about ozone and your health. 1999. Available [Online]:
http://www.epa.gov/airprogm/oar/oaqps/airnow/health/index.html>
[25 January 2000].

N
"Presidential Determination on Major Illicit Drug Producing and
Drug Transit Countries," Federal Register 65, no. 57 (2000): 15795. Available
[Online]: Search: Federal Register Volume/2000 Federal Register/Search Terms/"page
15795" [23 September 2000].
B "Presidential Determination on Major Illicit Drug Producing and Drug Transit
Countries." Federal Register 65, no. 57 (2000): 15795-15819. Available [Online]:
Search: Federal Register Volume/2000 Federal Register/Search Terms/
"page 15795" [23 September 2000].

Electronic Mail

Author author's email address, Subject of Message [Email to
recipient's name recipient's email address] (Date).

N
Paul Johnson pjohnson@nmu.edu, RE: Broken Link to Citation
Guidelines [Email to Maurice Crouse crousem@cc.memphis.edu]. (29 January 1996).

 

  Author author's email address. Subject of Message [Email to recipient's name recipient's
email address]. Date.
B Johnson, Paul pjohnson@nmu.edu. RE: Broken Link to Citation Guidelines [Email to
Maurice Crouse crousem@cc.memphis.edu]. 29 January 1996.

 



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