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APA Reference Style Guide

Developed and maintained by Professor Michael "Mike" Strahan. Updated 12/12/2018

Examples reflect the 6th edition, 2nd printing (© 2010) of the Publication Manual; APA Style Guide to Electronic References, 6th ed. (© 2012); and APA Style Blog ( http://blog.apastyle.org/ ).

Note that examples below reflect APA's change to DOI format on March 1, 2017.

Please always refresh page (F5) to reflect changes since your last visit.

Note: Enforcement of APA style is up to course instructor or publication editor.

  • Articles - incl. APA change to DOI format on March 1, 2017 (different from 6th ed.)

    • How to find assigned DOI

      For one article:
      1. Check the first page of article (usually in smaller print near journal logo, copyright, or near author email address).
      2. If not on article, check database record/abstract (sometimes labeled as DOI). CINAHL began adding DOI's in 2009.
      3. If DOI does not appear on either article or in database, search the Cross/Ref DOI Lookup using article author/title

      For list of references:
      1. Create an account at Cross/Ref. After you submit your request, you will receive an e-mail. Please click on the provided link to activate your account.
      2. Next, go to Simple Text Query Form and enter your e-mail address, then copy & paste entire reference list into box. Click submit.

      An individual DOI may be verified/searched:
      Resolve a DOI name
    • No DOI assigned? How to find journal home page

      Do steps in order:
      1. Look for web address on the article.
      2. Type complete journal title in web browser address bar.
      3. Check database record.
      4. Search journal title in Ulrich's (works great for journal title with common words).

    • Articles assigned DOI

      NOTES: Journal titles which begin with BMC or other online-only journals often use document numbers instead of issue numbers, as in this example in volume 15: 15:366. However, do not use the document number in your reference; instead, provide the volume number followed by page numbers. See third example below.

      *Although the APA as publisher accepts the older DOI formats, please verify DOI format with course instructor or journal author guidelines before submission.

      Journal Article (continuous pagination throughout volume)
      Wilens, T. E., & Biederman, J. (2006). Alcohol, drugs, and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: A model for the study of addictions in youth. Journal of Psychopharmacology, 20, 580-588. https://doi.org/10.1177/0269881105058776
      *APA also accepts older formats: doi:10.1177/0269881105058776
      or: http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0269881105058776

      Journal Article (continuous pagination throughout volume), more than seven authors
      Caselli, D., Carraro, F., Castagnola, E., Ziino, O., Frenos, S., Milano, G. M., . . . Aric, M. (2010). Morbidity of pandemic H1N1 influenza in children with cancer. Pediatric Blood & Cancer, 55, 226-228. https://doi.org/10.1002/pbc.22619
      *APA also accepts older formats: doi:10.1002/pbc.22619
      or: http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pbc.22619

      Journal Article which provides a volume number and document number instead of an issue number on the article itself (example: 15:366), and each article in the volume usually begins with page number 1.
      Norris, E., Shelton, N., Dunsmuir, S., Duke-Williams, O., & Stamatakis, E. (2015). Virtual field trips as physically active lessons for children: A pilot study. BMC Public Health, 15, 1-9. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12889-015-1706-5
      *APA also accepts older formats: doi:10.1186/s12889-015-1706-5
      or: http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12889-015-1706-5

      Journal Article (paginated by issue)
      Klimoski, R., & Palmer, S. (1993). The ADA and the hiring process in organizations. Consulting Psychology Journal: Practice and Research, 45(2), 10-36. https://doi.org/10.1037/1061-4087.45.2.10
      *APA also accepts older formats: doi:10.1037/1061-4087.45.2.10
      or: http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/1061-4087.45.2.10

      Cochrane Database Report retrieved from Cochrane Library
      Shaw, K., O'Rourke, P., Del Mar, C., & Kenardy, J. (2005). Psychological interventions for overweight or obesity. The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, (2). https://doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD003818.pub2
      *APA also accepts older formats: doi:10.1002/14651858.CD003818.pub2
      or: http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD003818.pub2

      Advance online article (published online before print; may or may not include pagination; indicate initial page number or range if available).
      Jung, T. I., Hoffmann, F., Glaeske, G., & Felsenberg, D. (2009). Disease-specific risk for an osteonecrosis of the jaw under bisphosphonate therapy. Journal of Cancer Research and Clinical Oncology. Advance online publication. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00432-009-0662-9
      *APA also accepts older formats: doi:10.1007/s00432-009-0662-9
      or: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00432-009-0662-9

    • Articles not assigned a DOI, retrieved online

      Journal Article (continuous pagination throughout volume)
      Arakji, R. Y., & Lang, K. R. (2008). Avatar business value analysis: A method for the evaluation of business value creation in virtual commerce. Journal of Electronic Commerce Research, 9, 207-218. Retrieved from http://www.csulb.edu/journals/jecr
      Journal Article (paginated by issue)
      Williams, J. (2008). The victims of crime. Sociology Review, 17(4), 30-32. Retrieved from http://www.philipallan.co.uk/sociologyreview/index.htm
      Journal Article (paginated by issue), more than seven authors
      Fuchs, D., Fuchs, L. S., Al Otaiba, S., Thompson, A., Yen, L., McMaster, K. N., . . . Yang, N. J. (2001). K-PALS: Helping kindergartners with reading readiness: Teachers and researchers in partnerships. Teaching Exceptional Children, 33(4), 76-80. Retrieved from http://www.cec.sped.org/content/navigationmenu/publications2/teachingexceptionalchildren
      Magazine Article (page numbers appear on article)
      Bower, B. (2008, Feb. 9). Dawn of the city: Excavations prompt a revolution in thinking about the earliest cities. Science News, 173(6), 90-92. Retrieved from http://www.sciencenewsmagazine.org
      Newspaper Article (no page number provided)
      Heinlein, G. (2007, July 24). Michigan smoking ban takes big step. Detroit News. Retrieved from http://www.detnews.com
      Newsletter article, retrieved from publisher web site
      Unless newsletter article is paginated, exclude pages numbers.
      Dowd, N., O'Donnell, P., & Snoek-Brown, J. (2007, Winter). WeLead and academic libraries: A bright future. Wisconsin Association of Academic Librarians WAAL Newsletter, 24(1). Retrieved from http://www.wla.lib.wi.us/waal/newsletter/241.html#welead
    • Articles, not assigned a DOI, retrieved online, & no journal web page available (usually when publication ceases)

      Provide holding database home or entry page URL.

      Journal Article (continuous pagination throughout volume)
      Billson, C. J. (1892). The Easter hare. Folklore, 3, 441-466. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org
      Langdon, S. W., & Preble, W. (2008). The relationship between levels of perceived respect and bullying in 5th through 12th graders. Adolescence, 43, 485-503. Retrieved from https://search.proquest.com
    • Articles, not assigned a DOI, retrieved print source

      Article in a journal
      Darling-Hammond, L., & Falk, B. (1997). Using standards and assessments to support student learning. Phi Delta Kappan, 79(3), 190-199.
      Article in a Popular Magazine
      Caloyianis, N. (1998, September). Greenland sharks. National Geographic, 194(3), 60-71.
      Article in a Newspaper (Discontinuous pages)
      Von Drehle, D. (2000, January 15). Russians unveil new security plan. The Washington Post, pp. A1, A21.
  • Web Pages (incl. CDC & Mayo Clinic Staff)

    • (Informally Published or Self-archived Work, Manual, p. 212)

      Individual web page

      Since web pages and documents are similar to print, references to them include the same elements such as author, date, title, etc. Note that proper names and acronyms are capitalized. Date of retrieval is included because "the source material may change over time" (Manual, p. 192, and apastyle.org).

      IMPORTANT NOTE: the web page title is not italicized because APA considers web pages informal publications. If the web page is also available as an online document/report (for example in PDF), please download that report, cite in-text appropriately, and use the online report format instead (click here to jump to those examples).

    • Web page: Individual person(s) as author(s) (note capitalization of proper names, & when persons are authors you must include name of website)
      Lewis, O., & Redish, L. (2011). Native American tribes of Wisconsin. Retrieved April 19, 2012, from the Native Languages of the Americas website: http://www.native-languages.org/wisconsin.htm
      Web page: Group of people as authors: Mayo Clinic Staff (if citing more than 1 section, use "Print" URL)
      Mayo Clinic Staff. (2014). Gestational diabetes. Retrieved October 1, 2014, from http://www.mayoclinic.org /diseases-conditions/gestational-diabetes/basics/definition/con-20014854?p=1
      Web page: Organization as author, shows update year
      Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2012). Diabetes & pregnancy. Retrieved October 1, 2014, from http://www.cdc.gov/Features/DiabetesPregnancy/

      Web page: Organization as author, no update year (note capitalization of proper names)
      Milwaukee Public Museum. (n.d.). Stockbridge-Munsee history. Retrieved April 16, 2012, from http://www.mpm.edu/wirp /ICW-158.html

    • Note regarding citing an entire web site source

      When discussing an entire web site (as opposed to a specific page on the web site), an entry does not appear in the reference list, but is cited within text as shown in the following sample sentence:
      The International Council of Museums web site provides many links to museums, codes of ethics, and the museum profession (http://www.icom.org/).

  • Illustrations retrieved online

    • Photographs, drawings, etc. copied or adapted from a Web Page

      Notes: APA Manual (p. 192) states: "Do not include retrieval dates unless the source material may change over time." Since web page content often changes, provide the date of retrieval. Also, if you must split the URL between two lines, do so before a slash, but do not split http://.

      Following illustration title, insert type of medium in square brackets. Illustration types include diagram, photograph, painting, drawing, bronze sculpture, etc.
      National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. (2012). Dermal absorption [Diagram]. Retrieved March 11, 2013, from http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/topics/skin
      If illustration does not have a name/title, insert description including type of medium in square brackets following year. This example does not have a publication date.
      Florida Hospital. (n.d.). [Untitled photograph of a woman.] Retrieved March 11, 2013, from http://www.changeyourlifechallenge.org/news

  • Books & Reports

    • Books & Reports, retrieved online source

      Electronic version of print book, retrieved from STAT!Ref (Use same URL for all STAT!Ref entries)
      Nieswiadomy, R. M. (2008). Foundations of nursing research (5th ed.) [STAT!Ref version]. Retrieved from http://online.statref.com
      Electronic version of print book, retrieved from EBSCO eBook Collection (Use same URL for all EBSCO entries)
      Vogel, C. G. (1999). Legends of landforms: Native American lore and the geology of the land. Retrieved from http://search.ebscohost.com
      Electronic version of print book, retrieved from ProQuest Ebook Central / Academic Complete (use same URL for all entries)
      Chandler, C. K. (2011). Animal assisted therapy in counseling. Retrieved from https://search.proquest.com
      Electronic version of print book, freely available, organization as author
      American Nurses Association. (2015). Code of ethics for nurses with interpretive statements. Retrieved from https://www.nursingworld.org/coe-view-only
      Electronic version of print book, freely available through National Academies Press (some indexed in PubMed), organization as author (DOI assigned)
      National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. (2013). Human genome editing: Science, ethics, and governance. http://doi.org/10.17226/24623
      Electronic version of print book, retrieved from SpringerLink (DOI assigned)
      Valencia, C. A., Pervaiz, M. A., Husami, A., Qian, Y., & Zhang, K. (2013). Next generation sequencing technologies in medical genetics. http://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4614-9032-6
      Electronic book - direct link unavailable or URL leads to information on how to obtain the item.
      Note use of "Available from" instead of "Retrieved from"
      Gonzalez-Mena, J. (2007). Diversity in early care and education: Honoring differences. Available from http://mhprofessional.com/product.php?isbn=007722289X
      Electronic version of book chapter from an edited book
      Symonds, P. M. (1958). Human drives. In C. L. Stacey & M. DeMartino (Eds.), Understanding human motivation (pp. 11-22). https://doi.org/10.1037/11305-002
      *APA also accepts older formats: doi: http://doi.org/10.1037/11305-002
      or: http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/11305-002

      Report/Document available on the web, authored by individual(s)--not agency, has publication date & report number
      Russo, C. A., & Jiang, H. J. (2006). Hospital stays among patients with diabetes, 2004 (Statistical Brief No. 17). Retrieved from Agency for Healthcare Research & Quality website: http://www.hcup-us.ahrq.gov/reports/statbriefs/sb17.jsp
      Report/Document available on the web, no author identified, no publication date (provide title first)
      Elementary school math instruction questionnaire results. Most significantly improved schools. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.sharingsuccess.org/code/highperf/2002-03/es_math/msi/index.htm
      Report/Document available on the web, authored by a nongovernmental organization, no publication date
      Accreditation Commission for Programs in Hospitality Administration. (n.d.). Handbook of accreditation. Retrieved from http://www.acpha-cahm.org/forms/acpha/acphahandbook04.pdf
      Report/Document from institutional archive or university department web site
      Trapp, Y. U. (2005). Multiple intelligences: The learning process in our students. Retrieved from Yale University, Yale-New Haven Teachers Institute website: http://www.yale.edu/ynhti/curriculum/units/2001/6/01.06.10.x.html
    • Books, retrieved print source

      Book, no author or editor

      Place title in the author's position; alphabetize on reference list by the first significant word in the title; cite in text using a few words of the title, or the whole title if it is short, in place of the author's name.

      Nursing 2016 drug handbook (36th ed.). (2016). Philadelphia, PA: Wolters Kluwer.
      Book, one author
      McKibben, B. (1992). The age of missing information. New York, NY: Random House.
      Book, multiple authors
      Larson, G. W., Ellis, D. C., & Rivers, P. C. (1984). Essentials of chemical dependency counseling. New York, NY: Columbia University Press.
      Edited book (editor in place of author)
      Inness, S. A. (Ed.). (1998). Delinquents and debutantes: Twentieth-century American girls' cultures. New York, NY: New York University Press.
      Book, subsequent edition (2nd, 3rd, etc.)
      Stanfield, P., Cross, N., & Hui, Y. H. (2012). Introduction to the health professions (6th ed.). Burlington, MA: Jones & Bartlett Learning.
      Article or chapter in a book where each chapter is written by a Contributor, and book has authors (not editors), subsequent edition
      Landis, C. A., & Heitkemper, M. M. (2011). Sleep and sleep disorders. In S. L. Lewis, S. R. Dirksen, M. M. Heitkemper, L. Bucher, & I. M. Camera, Medical-surgical nursing: Assessment and management of clinical problems (8th ed., pp. 112-125). St. Louis, MO: Elsevier.
      Article or chapter a book where each chapter is written by author(s), and publisher is book author (not editor), subsequent edition
      Kouzes, J. M., & Posner, B. Z. (2007). The five practices of exemplary leadership. In Jossey-Bass, The Jossey-Bass reader on educational leadership (2nd ed., rev. ed., pp. 63-72). San Francisco, CA: Author.
      Report from a private organization (author & publisher same)
      National League for Nursing. (1990). Self-study report for community health organizations (Pub. No. 21-2329). New York, NY: Author.
      Article or chapter in an edited book (editors indicated)
      Hartley, J. T., Harker, J. O., & Walsh, D. A. (1980). Contemporary issues and new directions in adult development of learning and memory. In L. W. Poon (Ed.), Aging in the 1980s: Psychological issues (pp. 239-252). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
  • Reference / Dictionaries / Encylopedias

    • Reference / Dictionaries / Encyclopedias, retrieved online source

      Entry in an Encyclopedia, retrieved online, no entry author
      Boss brass. (2009). In H. Kallmann & G. Potvin (Eds.), Encyclopedia of music in Canada. Retrieved from http://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.com/index.cfm?PgNm=TCE&Params=U1ARTU0000367
      Entry in an Encyclopedia, retrieved from online, entry has author name
      Gersten, T. (2014). Hemophilia B. In National Library of Medicine, A.D.A.M. medical encyclopedia. Retrieved from https://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/000539.htm
      Entry in an Encyclopedia, retrieved from STAT!Ref online, no entry author
      Vernix caseosa. (2009). In D. Venes (Ed.), Taber's cyclopedic medical dictionary (21st ed.) [STAT!Ref version]. Retrieved from http://online.statref.com
      Entry in an Encyclopedia, electronic version of print book, entry author, multi-volume, direct link unavailable, retrieved from Gale Virtual Reference Library
      Hanegraaff, W. (2005). New Age movement. In L. Jones (Ed.), Encyclopedia of religion (2nd ed., Vol. 10, pp. 6495-6500). Retrieved from http://go.galegroup.com/ps
      Definition Entry in a general Dictionary, retrieved online, no entry author, no date, no editor. Note: When no entry author is provided, move name of word into author position.
      Diabetes. (n.d.). In Merriam-Webster's online dictionary (11th ed.). Retrieved from http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/diabetes
      Entry in a Dictionary, retrieved online, no entry author, no editor
      Terrorism. (2009). In DOD dictionary of military and associated terms. Retrieved from http://www.dtic.mil/doctrine/dod_dictionary/data/t/7591.html
    • Reference / Dictionaries / Encyclopedias, retrieved print source

      Entry in an encyclopedia

      This includes both general and specialized encyclopedias. If an entry does not have a byline, begin the reference with the entry title and publication date.

      Moore, C. (1991). Mass Spectrometry. In Encyclopedia of chemical technology (4th ed.) (Vol. 15, pp. 1071-1094). New York, NY: Wiley.
      Entry in Mental Measurements Yearbook (MMY)

      Title of the review and authorship appears in italics at the beginning of the review narrative (example provided below). Also note that many entries published in MMY contain more than one review. Title of the test is capatilized.

      Review of the Comprehensive Assessment of School Environments by NANCY L. ALLEN, Research Scientist, Educational Testing Service, Princeton, NJ:

      Allen, N. L. (1992). Review of the Comprehensive Assessment of School Environments. In J. J. Kramer & J. C. Conoley (Eds.), The eleventh mental measurements yearbook. Lincoln, NE: Buros Institute, University of Nebraska Press.
  • ERIC Documents

    • ERIC documents, retrieved online source

      Working Paper, from electronic database [ERIC] (Manual, p. 206)
      Xu, D., & Jaggars, S. S. (2013). Adaptability to online learning: Differences across types of students and academic subject areas (CCRC Working Paper No. 54). Retrieved from http://www.eric.ed.gov
      Dissertations/Theses: Doctoral Dissertations, from electronic database [ERIC] (Manual, pp. 207-208)
      Simon, C. E. (1995). Information retrieval techniques: The differences in cognitive strategies and search behaviors among graduate students in an academic library (Doctoral dissertation, Wayne State University). Retrieved from http://www.eric.ed.gov
      Speeches/Meeting Papers - Published in proceedings, limited circulation, retrieved from ERIC database (Manual, p. 192 & p. 207)
      Lucas, L. A. (1998). Issues in the creation and coordination of an academic computing help desk. Association of Small Computer Users in Education: Proceedings of the ASCUE Summer Conference, North Myrtle Beach, SC (pp. 87-92). Retrieved from http://www.eric.ed.gov
      ERIC Digest - Informally published or self-archived work, from ERIC (Manual, p. 212)
      Schuetz, P. (2000). Successful collaborations between high schools and community colleges. ERIC Digest. Retrieved from http://www.eric.ed.gov
      Dissertations/Theses: Master's Theses - Unpublished, from an electronic database [ERIC] (Manual, pp. 207-208)
      Lopez, J. (2005). Characteristics of selected multilingual education programs from around the world: A review of the literature (Unpublished master's thesis). Dominican University of California, Retrieved from http://www.eric.ed.gov
      Report - from ERIC (Manual, p. 212)
      Brewster, C., & Railsback, J. (2002). Full-day kindergarten: Exploring an option for extended learning. Retrieved from http://www.eric.ed.gov
      Speeches/Meeting Papers - Unpublished presentation retrieved from ERIC (Manual, p. 206)
      Shaw, C. L. M. (1997, November). Customer satisfaction: Communication training and the help-desk hot-line. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the National Communication Association, Chicago, IL. Retrieved from http://www.eric.ed.gov
    • ERIC documents, retrieved microfiche source

      Barker, C. L., & Searchwell, C. J. (2000). Writing year-end teacher improvement plans--right now!! The principal's time-saving reference guide. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press. (ED450448)
      Report - available from ERIC (microfiche-only, but without report number)
      Morgan, D. R. (1982). Desegregating public schools: A handbook for local officials. Norman, OK: Bureau of Government Research, University of Oklahoma. (ED215005)
      Speeches/Meeting Papers - Unpublished presentation (microfiche-only)
      Kondrick, L. C., & Franklin, K. K. (2003). A conceptual model for a task analysis of methods in action research design. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Mid-South Educational Research Association, Biloxi, MS. (ED482468)
  • Dissertations & Theses

    • Disssertations & Theses, retrieved online source

      Master's thesis from ProQuest Dissertations & Theses database (written by NMU graduate student)
      Smith-LaBrash, S. (2010). Influence of learning styles, gender, self-rated computer experience, and age on preference for computer assisted learning versus traditional learning (Master's thesis). Retrieved from ProQuest Dissertations & Theses database. (UMI No. 1483122)
      Doctoral Dissertation from ProQuest Dissertations & Theses database
      Richardson, L. S. (2010). Elementary teachers' perceptions of grade retention (Doctoral dissertation). Retrieved from ProQuest Dissertations & Theses database. (UMI No. 3416301)
      Doctoral Dissertation from a commercial database
      Jackson, S. L. (2007). Program effectiveness of job readiness training: An analysis and evaluation of selected programs in St. Louis, Missouri (Doctoral dissertation). Retrieved from ABI/INFORM database. (UMI No. 3241781)
      Doctoral Dissertation from an institutional database (sometimes referred to as a Commons or has ETD in url)
      Naylor, S. M. (2007). Understanding graduate student constructs for finding meaning in the advising experience: A qualitative case study of incoming master's of social work students (Doctoral dissertation). Retrieved from http://libres.uncg.edu/edocs/etd/
      Master's Thesis or Doctoral Dissertation using persistent link/identifier or handle (sometimes called uri); the source address "handle.net" usually appears as part of the URL/URI.
      Bartel, T. M. C. (2005). Factors associated with attachment in international adoption (Doctoral dissertation). Retrieved from http://hdl.handle.net/2097/131

    • Dissertations & Theses, retrieved print source

      Unpublished master's thesis (not indexed in Dissertation Express or Dissertation Abstracts/Master's Abstracts)
      Paulosky, K. A. (1997). Knowledge and attitudes of pain and activities of nurse administrators (Unpublished master's thesis). Northern Michigan University, Marquette, MI.
      Note: According to Anne Gasque (Manual senior editor), since Dissertation Abstracts International is unavailable through NMU, researchers may substitute Dissertation Express information for DAI entry information.

      Master's thesis indexed in Dissertation Express
      McNiel, D. S. (2006). Meaning through narrative: A personal narrative discussing growing up with an alcoholic mother (Master's thesis). Available from Dissertation Express database. (UMI No. 1434728)
      Doctoral dissertation indexed in Dissertation Express
      Met, L. (1976). A study of the development and validation of a high school leadership training program: Evaluation of the student leadership program (Doctoral dissertation). Available from Dissertation Express database. (UMI No. 7703303)
      Doctoral dissertation abstracted in Dissertation Abstracts International (DAI).
      Gould, J. B. (1999). Symbolic speech: Legal mobilization and the rise of collegiate hate speech codes. Dissertation Abstracts International, 60(02), 533A.
      Master's Thesis from a university outside of the United States, does not appear in Dissertation Express.
      Hansen, C. F. (2007). Active support for instructors and students in an online learning environment (Master's thesis, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Canada).
      Doctoral Thesis from a university outside of the United States, publisher is a university & name of province is included in name of university, then do not repeat the name (APA Manual, 6.30). Also, does not appear in Dissertation Express.
      Ni, E. A.-L. (2012). New paradigms for active learning (Doctoral thesis, University of Western Ontario, London, Canada).
      Doctoral Thesis from a university outside of the United States, publisher is a university & name of province is not included in name of university (include province postal abbreviation). Also, does not appear in Dissertation Express..
      Watts, E. (1999). The freshman year experience, 1962-1990: An experiment in humanistic higher education (Doctoral thesis, Queen's University, Kingston, ON, Canada).

  • YouTube / Videos / Audio Podcasts

    • YouTube-type Video Blog Post
      Goyen, A. (2007, February 22). Downtown Marquette dog sled races [Video file]. Retrieved from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gW3CNCGGgTY
      University of Chicago. (2007, December 12). European cartographers and the Ottoman world, 1500--1750 [Video file]. Retrieved from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Xax5d4IKqrQ
      Video Webcast from Television Series Single Episode
      ABC News (Producer). (2007, September 21). Dying professor's lecture of a lifetime [Video webcast] [Television series episode]. In Good Morning America. Person of the Week. Retrieved from http://abcnews.go.com/GMA/PersonOfWeek/Story?id=3633945&page=1
      Audio Podcast
      Charney, T. (Producer). (2007). Ashes to hope: Overcoming the Detroit riots. U.P. family still struggles to deal with pressure of '67 riot [Audio podcast]. Retrieved from http://www.michiganradio.org
      Film / Movie / Motion Picture
      Chrisman, S. (Producer & Director). (2003). Lumberjack life U.P. days of yore [DVD]. Available from http://wnmutv.nmu.edu/video_sales.php
  • Government Documents

    • Government documents, retrieved online source

      U.S. Government executive document, authored by agency, with report number. Per the 9/25/18 APA Style blog post, APA recommends providing the specific government agency name for author, not the complete long form showing hierarchy of departments (although both forms are now correct).
      Note that the agency publication number may appear on the web document or in the library catalog. Environmental Protection Agency. (1999). Smog-Who does it hurt? What you need to know about ozone and your health (EPA Publication No. EPA-452/K-99-001). Retrieved from http://www.epa.gov/airnow/health/smog.pdf
      Government Report/Document, authored by individual(s)--not agency, has publication date & report number.
      Werner, C. A. (2011). The older population: 2010 (2010 Census Briefs, No. C2010BR-09). Retrieved from U.S. Census Bureau website: http://www.census.gov/prod/cen2010/briefs/c2010br-09.pdf
      Russo, C. A., & Jiang, H. J. (2006). Hospital stays among patients with diabetes, 2004 (Statistical Brief No. 17). Retrieved from Agency for Healthcare Research & Quality website: http://www.hcup-us.ahrq.gov/reports/statbriefs/sb17.jsp
      Government report, no document number
      Food and Drug Administration. (2017). Food facts: Food and water safety during power outages and floods. Retrieved from https://www.fda.gov/downloads/Food/RecallsOutbreaksEmergencies/ucm076962.pdf
    • Government documents, retrieved print source

      Note: For government documents which do not have a personal author, APA recommends per the 9/25/18 APA Style blog post providing the specific government agency name for author, not the complete long form showing hierarchy of departments (although both forms are now correct). Also, not all U.S. government documents are published by GPO. As is the case for the second example below, when the publisher is the authoring agency, write: Author in the publisher's field.

      U.S. Government executive document
      Note that the agency publication number may appear on the document or in the online catalog.
      Lindeman, D. A. (1984). Alzheimer's disease handbook (DHHS Publication No. OHDS 84-20813). Washington, DC: Government Publishing Office.
      National Park Service. (2004). Pictured rocks national lakeshore: Final general management plan, wilderness study, environmental impact statement. Washington, DC: Author.
      Michigan Government executive document
      Michigan Department of Community Health. (2003). Michigan dementia plan summary: Reducing the burden of dementia in Michigan. Lansing, MI: Author.
  • Law / Legal

    • Note about legal citations

      For legislative and legal materials, APA uses the conventional legal citation format found in The Bluebook: A Uniform System of Citation. Guidelines and additional examples appear in the Manual on pp. 216-224.
    • Law / Legal, retrieved online source

      Unenacted bills - Federal - retrieved through Thomas.gov
      Unless you wish to provide parallel traditional and Internet references, it is not necessary to indicate where you retrieved bill text.

      For legislative materials such as hearings, reports, bills, etc., provide title, Congress, session, and date.

      Josh Miller HEARTS Act, S. 1197, 111th Cong. (2009).
      Unenacted bills - State - retrieved through mi.gov
      H.B. 4379, 95th Leg., Reg. Sess. (Mich. 2010).
      Court Decision with record number identifier (Note source abbreviations - WestLaw: WL & Lexis-Nexis: LEXIS)
      Note: If screen numbers are assigned, precede with an asterisk.
      Hornback v. U.S., No. 03-5099, 2004 WL 68510, at *1 (C. A. Fed. Jan. 13, 2004).
    • Law / Legal, retrieved print source

      U.S. Government Congressional document
      For legislative materials such as hearings, reports, bills, etc., provide title, Congress, session, and date.

      Charter schools: Hearing before the Subcommittee on Early Childhood, Youth, and Families of the Committee on Education and the Workforce, House of Representatives, 105th Cong. 1 (1998).
      Court decision (note that no part of entry is italicized)
      United States v. Nixon, 418 U.S. 683 (1974).
  • Course Materials (syllabus, lecture notes, presentation slides)

    • When course materials such as a syllabus, lecture notes, or presentation slides (e.g., PowerPoint) are available only from the course instructor, a classmate, or accessible only through course management systems such as NMU EduCat, Moodle, or Blackboard, then such content is considered Personal Communications (APA Style Guide to Electronic Resources, 2nd ed., p. 31).

    • Personal communications do not appear in the reference list, but are cited within text as follows:

      L. Flood (personal communication, April 7, 2014)

      (N. Gasiewicz, personal communication, March 26, 2014).
  • Conferences & Presentations

    • Conferences & Presentations, retrieved online source

      Paper in proceedings published regularly
      Rissman, J., Greely, H. T., & Wagner, A. D. (2010). Detecting individual memories through the neural decoding of memory states and past experience. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA, 107, 9849-9854. doi:10.1073/pnas.1001028107
      Paper in proceedings published regularly, more than seven authors
      Brem, S., Bach, S., Kucian, K., Guttorm, T. K., Martin, E., Lyytinen, H., ... Richardson, U. (2010). Brain sensitivity to print emerges when children learn letter-speech sound correspondences. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA, 107, 7939-7944. doi:10.1073/pnas.0904402107
      Conference presentation slides
      Clumpner, K. E. (2007, April). Interdisciplinary blog for liaisons [PowerPoint slides]. Paper presented at the annual conference of the Wisconsin Association of Academic Librarians, Wisconsin Dells, WI. Retrieved from http://www.wla.lib.wi.us/waal/conferences/2007/postconference/clumpner.pdf
      Conference panel abstract
      Freier, M., Bennett, T., & Riley, A. C. (2009, March). Gender, generation, and toxicity: The implications for academic libraries of gender and generational attitudes toward competition and workplace behavior. Panel presented at the ACRL 14th National Conference, Seattle, WA. Abstract retrieved from http://www.eshow2000.com/acrl/2009/e_pop_profiles.cfm?session=1&session_id=112539&class_id=113811
    • Conferences & Presentations, retrieved print source

      Published Proceedings
      Capitalize the name of the symposium.

      Barlow, D. H., Chorpita, B. F., & Turovsky, J. (1996). Fear, panic, anxiety, and disorders of emotion. In R. Dienstbier (Ed.), Nebraska Symposium on Motivation: Vol. 43. Perspectives on Anxiety, Panic, and Fear (pp. 251-328). Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press.
      Proceedings published regularly (format similar to periodicals)
      Wassenaar, L. I., & Hobson, K. A. (1998). Natal origins of migratory monarch butterflies at wintering colonies in Mexico: New isotopic evidence. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA, 95, 15436-15439.
      Poster presented at conference
      Raspe, P. D. (1991, April). Relationship among given names in the Scilly Isles. Poster session presented at the annual meeting of the American Association of Physical Anthropologists, Milwaukee, WI.
  • Personal Communications

    • The APA Publication Manual (6th ed., p. 179) indicates that personal communications include letters, memos, telephone conversations, some electronic communications (e.g., e-mail or messages from nonarchived discussion groups or electronic bulletin boards), etc.

    • Personal communications do not appear in the reference list, but are cited within text as follows:

      D. Walch (personal communication, January 19, 2007).

      (L. Brothen, personal communication, June 6, 2004).

  • Miscellaneous: Abstract as source, Blog & Mailing List postings, Data Set / Bank

    • Although referencing the full-text of an article is preferred, abstracts may be used as sources (Manual, p. 202).

      Abstract found in database - Abstract as secondary source
      Johnson, P. D. (1998). Rural stroke caregivers: A qualitative study of the positive and negative response to the caregiver role. Topics in Stroke Rehabilitation, 5(3), 51-68. Abstract retrieved from CINAHL database. (Accession No. 1999045958)
      Abstract found on publisher web site - Abstract as original source
      Wang, J. L., Lesage, A., Schmitz, N., & Drapeau, A. (2008). The relationship between work stress and mental disorders in men and women: Findings from a population-based study. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, 62, 42-47. Abstract retrieved from http://jech.bmj.com
      Message posted to a Blog
      Jacobson, J. (2009, November 8). Historic health reform bill passes but at a price: Women's groups have mixed reaction [Blog post]. Retrieved from http://www.rhrealitycheck.org/blog/2009/11/08/historic-health-reform-bill-passes-but-at-a-price-womens-groups-have-mixed-reaction
      Message posted to an electronic mailing list (archived)
      SaFeddern, T. (2004, May 10). Summary: EBN (nursing) resources [Electronic mailing list message]. Retrieved from Nursing & Allied Health Resources Section of the Medical Library Association (NAHRS), http://listserv.kent.edu/cgi-bin/wa.exe?LIST=NAHRS
      Graphic representation of data derived from a data set / data bank
      When a figure (graph, map, chart, etc.) or table is generated/created from a data set/data bank available online, use the following to reference the data set. Since data sets/banks are frequently updated, provide the URL of the initial web page used to generate the graphic. Note to also properly caption & cite the resulting graphic or table. See examples of how to caption & cite tables & figures from another source.

      National Center for Injury Prevention and Control. (2007). Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. Trends Data [Data file]. Retrieved from https://www.cdc.gov/brfss/index.html

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